Business trends, preview of forthcoming laws and regulations, recommendations, business cases, opinion articles, etc.
What are the consequences of a settlement procedure where all the companies reach agreement with the authority conducting the investigation phase except one? Could the latter be harmed by not reaching an agreement? How does the principle of presumption of innocence apply given that the other participants in the infringement have already admitted to the facts? In this article, we identify the risks and disadvantages created by the so-called hybrid process and we will see that these can hardly be fully mitigated.
Morocco has proposed a bill that would amend its current arbitration regulations, which were posing an obstacle to promoting this alternative method for resolving disputes in the country. The aim of the bill is to help convert the country into a leading financial center. We analyze below the key features of the bill that may be adopted in the coming weeks.
Filing an appeal against a Portuguese award is possible but parties should be aware of the details, requirements and peculiarities of this mechanism, especially when issues of constitutionality are raised during the proceedings.
The European Central Bank (ECB) plans to announce shortly whether it will launch a design and creation project for a digital euro, something which, as the institution itself has said, would have an immense impact. We need to know therefore what the digital euro would be legally and what implications it could have for many parties in the financial system and in particular for banks and other financial institutions.
China has been building up and improving its legal regime for recognition and enforcement of foreign awards since the nation joined the New York Convention in the 1980’s. In this article we give an overview on the key issues regarding the enforcement of foreign awards in this jurisdiction, taking into account the recent developments and opening-up reforms.
English law, courts and lawyers are a popular option for business transactions in the EU. Brexit could possibly change that, not so much because of obstacles to a valid choice of English law or the enforceability of judgements rendered by English courts but because the UK is now outside the many procedures for judicial cooperation within the EU (summoning, taking of evidence and other forms of judicial cooperation) which are vital for effective cross-border litigation.
The departure of the United Kingdom from the EU will not affect the enforceability of English arbitration awards. Accordingly, in international commercial contracts, arbitration could be a more attractive alternative to litigation as it entails fewer risks to contracting parties in the new post-Brexit legal landscape.
Las fusiones bancarias transfronterizas han vuelto a estar de actualidad en la Unión Europea, animadas por los propios supervisores. En este tercer y último artículo de la serie analizamos el régimen de autorizaciones, el carácter probablemente imparable del proceso y alguna posible sugerencia para avanzar hacia una fusión, aunque por etapas.
Keeping our legal sight on the obstacles or difficulties for cross-border mergers which we started looking at in the previous article in this series, we cannot overlook that the laws of every state retain their own peculiar characteristics, a few of which are deep rooted although little known beyond their borders, which may place boulders in the path that are hard or impossible to move round.
There has been much talk about cross-border bank mergers in Europe, but so far none have happened or appear to be imminent. A few years ago Garrigues recommended that banks watch out for them in the future. Now the European supervisors are calling for them to be carried out and even trying to make them easier. But for the time being the bank concentration process is still taking place within each member state. This is currently being seen in Italy, with the acquisition of UBI Banca by Intesa Sanpaolo, and in Spain, with the merger of Caixabank and Bankia. It is not happening across borders. In this series of three articles we will try to identify and reflect on a number of legal factors that may partly explain this situation.